Impacts of Rubble and Sand Mining on River Morphology
Today, due to extensive constructions, sand and gravel mines are one of the most thriving and booming mines. Indiscriminate extraction and removal of these mines have often a direct impact on the destruction of natural conditions and morphology of rivers. In this study, through hydraulic simulation of flow and sediment in Bashar River by mathematical HEC-RAS model, the role and influence of material removal and creating holes on the river hydraulic changes were evaluated. The results showed that the material removal has caused reduction in water height and increased flow rate in the upstream of the harvest location. The maximum elevation change in bed along the river path was 1.5 m.